APA is the style of the American Psychological Association. APA is used at TEDS by the counseling program. At the College and Graduate School, APA is used by the psychology, education, and business majors. It is also used by several other college programs. See a full list of styles by department, and ask your professor for your particular class.
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association may be found in the library at REF BF 76.7 .P83.
(NIV Study Bible, 2020, 1 Cor. 13:1)
Reference list for print version:
NIV Study Bible. (2020). Zondervan.
Reference list for online version:
New International Version Bible. (2011). Bible Gateway. https://www.biblegateway.com/versions/New-International-Version-NIV-Bible/
Personal interview, email or conversation
(T.K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2006)
Personal communications are not included in the References List
Lecture, speech or sermon
If there is something people could refer to (recording, powerpoint, notes, etc.) use the following citation. If not, use the personal communication example above.
Hybels, B. (2008, March). "Read, relate, pray." Sermon presented at Willow Creek Community Church, South Barrington, IL.
(Publication Manual of the APA 4.16 #53 - example of poster session)
Unpublished paper or handout
Simala, J. P. (2009, January). How to do APA citation for REACH. Handout given in the IDS 105R class at Trinity International University, Deerfield, IL.
(Publication Manual of the APA 4.16 #52 - unpublished paper presented at a meeting)
Text cites another author (secondary source)
In the text, name the original author and give a citation for the source where you read it.
Example: According to Plato (as cited in Benson, 2006, p. 33)
List the source you read in your reference list.
(Publication Manual of the APA 4.16 #22)
Begin with the title of the item in the reference list:
Everday life and cultural theory. (2001). New York: Routledge.
In the text of the paper, include the first word or two of the title: ("Everyday life," 2001, p. 83).
Multiple publication locations
If there is more than one publication city for a book, list the first one. If it is not a well-known city or if it could be confused with another place, give an abbreviation for the state: Oxford, MA.
(Publication Manual of the APA 4.03)
Shortening publisher names
Give the name of the publisher in as brief a form as is intelligble. Leave out terms such as Publishers, Co. or Inc. but keep Books and Press.
(Publication Manual of the APA 4.14)
Multiple publication dates
If there is more than one publication year for a book, list the most recent date with the copyright symbol ©.(Publication Manual of the APA 4.09)
Use the abbreviation n.d.:
Highmore, B. (n.d.). Everyday life and cultural theory. New York: Routledge.
Article or chapter in an edited book
Meskell, L. (2001). Archaeologies of identity. In I. Hodder (Ed.) Archaeological theory today (pp. 187-213). Cambridge, England: Polity Press.
Article or chapter reprinted from another source
Entry in a reference book
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
(Publication Manual of the APA 4.16 #30)
Quixotic. (1990). Oxford dictionary (p. 345, 3rd ed., vol. 5). New York: Oxford Press.
In the text of the paper, cite the word: ("Quixotic," 1990, p. 345).
No volume or issue number
Include the month or season with the year:
Scruton, R. (1996, Summer). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 5-13.
Lohr, S. (2004, December 3). Health care technology is a promise unfinanced. The New York Times, p. C5.
No page numbers
If the paragraphs are numbered, include the paragraph: (Hall, 2001, para. 5).
If not, include the heading of the section and the paragraph within that section: (Hoppin & Taveras, 2004, Weight-Loss Drugs section, para. 6).
Seton, E. T. (1911). The Arctic prairies: A canoe-journey of 2,000 miles in search of the caribou. New York: C. Scribner's Sons. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from Google Books: http://www.google.com/books?id=oyw6jc6kNgYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=arctic+prairies&ei=Z43iR5HeJ4qMiQGxjOHVBA
Two or more works in an in-text citation
If you want to cite more than one source in the same place in your paper, include them in the same parentheses and separate them with a semicolon.
Example: Several studies (Balda, 1980, p. 31; Smith, 2003, p. 91; Pepperberg & Funk, 1990, p. 110)
Trinity College Catalog
Trinity International University. (2008). Trinity College 2008-09 catalog. Deerfield, IL. Retrieved from http://web.tiu.edu/files/college/academics/tc0809catalog.pdf
In-text citation: (Trinity International University, 2008, p.1)
Table, chart or graph
Include a note at the bottom of the table.
For a table from a journal article:
Note. From "Title of Article," by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, 2000, Title of Journal, 50, p. 22.
For a table from a book:
Note. From Title of Book (p. 103), by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, 1999, Place of Publication: Publisher.
Government documents and other reports
See the Hacker style manual or the APA citation site from Purdue
More help on APA:
Hacker, D. (2004). A pocket style manual (4th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2001, 5th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Citation Machine - creates citations for you. (It is not always accurate, so check to make sure they are correct.)
Questions? Contact Rebecca Donald at email@example.com or (847)317-4013.
McKee, G. (2007). The gospel according to science fiction: From the Twilight Zone to the final frontier. London: Westminster John Knox Press.
This book looks at how theology shows up in science fiction. It’s not written by a scholar, but it has some good descriptions of science fiction tv, books and movies that have theological elements. I’ll use this to identify some sources I can analyze myself.
Martinez, J. A. (2004, March). Review: Technology and theology (or lack thereof). Science Fiction Studies, 31(1), 132-137. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4241234
This article reviews the book Representations of the Post/Human by Elaine L. Graham, and complains that she does not discuss the related theology enough. This probably won’t be useful for my research paper, but maybe I could get the book he discusses.
Essay in a book
MacWilliams, A. B. (2011). Science playing God. In J. McGrath (Ed.), Religion and science fiction (pp. 80-94). Eugene, OR: Pickwick.
This essay looks at how science has stepped into the realm of religion, answering questions and providing hope that religion used to provide. It seems fairly scholarly, and it is exactly on the topic of my research paper.
Elliot. (2007). Claw of the conciliator: A case of consilience. Retrieved February 2, 2009 from http://clawoftheconciliator.blogspot.com/2007/07/case-of-consilience.html
A blog post analyzing the short story “A case of consilience” by Ken MacLeod. The author and a poster speculate on why the author as an atheist would write a story so positive toward religion. It’s definitely not scholarly, and I don’t think I will use it for my paper, but it is interesting to see someone else’s perspective on the story.