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Citation & Formatting Help

APA Style

APA is the style of the American Psychological Association. APA is used at TEDS by the counseling program.  At the College and Graduate School, APA is used by the psychology, education, and business majors.  It is also used by several other college programs. See a full list of styles by department, and ask your professor for your particular class.

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association may be found in the library at REF BF 76.7 .P83.

Commonly-asked APA questions


Parenthetical citation:
(NIV Study Bible, 2020, 1 Cor. 13:1)

Reference list for print version:
NIV Study Bible. (2020). Zondervan.

Reference list for online version:
New International Version Bible. (2011). Bible Gateway.

(APA Style Religious Work References)

Personal interview, email or conversation 

(T.K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2006)
Personal communications are not included in the References List

(Hacker 37a)

Lecture, speech or sermon 

If there is something people could refer to (recording, powerpoint, notes, etc.) use the following citation. If not, use the personal communication example above.

Hybels, B. (2008, March). "Read, relate, pray." Sermon presented at Willow Creek Community Church, South Barrington, IL. 

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.16 #53 - example of poster session)

Unpublished paper or handout

Simala, J. P. (2009, January). How to do APA citation for REACH. Handout given in the IDS 105R class at Trinity International University, Deerfield, IL.

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.16 #52 - unpublished paper presented at a meeting)

Text cites another author (secondary source)

In the text, name the original author and give a citation for the source where you read it.

Example: According to Plato (as cited in Benson, 2006, p. 33)

List the source you read in your reference list.

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.16 #22)

Unknown author

Begin with the title of the item in the reference list: 

Everday life and cultural theory. (2001). New York: Routledge.

In the text of the paper, include the first word or two of the title: ("Everyday life," 2001, p. 83).

(Hacker, 37a)

Multiple publication locations

If there is more than one publication city for a book, list the first one. If it is not a well-known city or if it could be confused with another place, give an abbreviation for the state: Oxford, MA.

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.03)

Shortening publisher names

Give the name of the publisher in as brief a form as is intelligble. Leave out terms such as Publishers, Co. or Inc. but keep Books and Press.

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.14)

Multiple publication dates

If there is more than one publication year for a book, list the most recent date with the copyright symbol ©.

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.09) 

No date

Use the abbreviation n.d.: 

Highmore, B. (n.d.). Everyday life and cultural theory. New York: Routledge.

(Hacker 37a) 

Article or chapter in an edited book

Meskell, L. (2001). Archaeologies of identity. In I. Hodder (Ed.) Archaeological theory today (pp. 187-213). Cambridge, England: Polity Press.

(Hacker 37b)

Article or chapter reprinted from another source

Piaget, J. (1988). Extracts from Piaget's theory. In K. Richardson (Ed.) Cognitive development to adolescence: A reader (pp. 3-18). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. (Reprinted from Manual of child psychology, pp. 703-732, by P. H. Mussen, Ed., 1970, New York: Wiley)
In the text include both publication years: (Piaget, 1970/1988)
If you don't have the original publication information, you can just use the year of the book. (See above.)
(Publication Manual of the APA 7.02 #26)

Entry in a reference book

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.16 #30)

Dictionary definition

Quixotic. (1990). Oxford dictionary (p. 345, 3rd ed., vol. 5). New York: Oxford Press.

In the text of the paper, cite the word: ("Quixotic," 1990, p. 345).

No volume or issue number

Include the month or season with the year:

Scruton, R. (1996, Summer). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 5-13.

Newspaper article

Lohr, S. (2004, December 3). Health care technology is a promise unfinanced. The New York Times, p. C5.

(Hacker 37b)

No page numbers

If the paragraphs are numbered, include the paragraph: (Hall, 2001, para. 5).

If not, include the heading of the section and the paragraph within that section: (Hoppin & Taveras, 2004, Weight-Loss Drugs section, para. 6).

(Hacker 37a)

Online book 

Seton, E. T. (1911). The Arctic prairies: A canoe-journey of 2,000 miles in search of the caribou. New York: C. Scribner's Sons. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from Google Books:

Two or more works in an in-text citation

If you want to cite more than one source in the same place in your paper, include them in the same parentheses and separate them with a semicolon.

Example: Several studies (Balda, 1980, p. 31; Smith, 2003, p. 91; Pepperberg & Funk, 1990, p. 110)

(Hacker 37a)

Trinity College Catalog

Trinity International University. (2008). Trinity College 2008-09 catalog. Deerfield, IL. Retrieved from

In-text citation: (Trinity International University, 2008, p.1)

Table, chart or graph 

Include a note at the bottom of the table.

For a table from a journal article: 

Note. From "Title of Article," by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, 2000, Title of Journal, 50, p. 22.

For a table from a book:

Note. From Title of Book (p. 103), by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, 1999, Place of Publication: Publisher.

Government documents and other reports 

See the Hacker style manual or the APA citation site from Purdue

More help on APA:

Hacker, D. (2004). A pocket style manual (4th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's. 

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2001, 5th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

APA Citation from Purdue  

Citation Machine - creates citations for you. (It is not always accurate, so check to make sure they are correct.)

Questions? Contact Jodi Craiglow at or 847-317-4020. 


Example Annotated Bibliographies


McKee, G. (2007). The gospel according to science fiction: From the Twilight Zone to the final frontier. London: Westminster John Knox Press.

This book looks at how theology shows up in science fiction. It’s not written by a scholar, but it has some good descriptions of science fiction tv, books and movies that have theological elements. I’ll use this to identify some sources I can analyze myself.

Journal article

Martinez, J. A. (2004, March). Review: Technology and theology (or lack thereof). Science Fiction Studies, 31(1), 132-137. Retrieved from

This article reviews the book Representations of the Post/Human by Elaine L. Graham, and complains that she does not discuss the related theology enough. This probably won’t be useful for my research paper, but maybe I could get the book he discusses.

Essay in a book

MacWilliams, A. B. (2011). Science playing God. In J. McGrath (Ed.), Religion and science fiction (pp. 80-94). Eugene, OR: Pickwick.

This essay looks at how science has stepped into the realm of religion, answering questions and providing hope that religion used to provide. It seems fairly scholarly, and it is exactly on the topic of my research paper.


Elliot. (2007). Claw of the conciliator: A case of consilience. Retrieved February 2, 2009 from

A blog post analyzing the short story “A case of consilience” by Ken MacLeod. The author and a poster speculate on why the author as an atheist would write a story so positive toward religion. It’s definitely not scholarly, and I don’t think I will use it for my paper, but it is interesting to see someone else’s perspective on the story.