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Citation & Formatting Help

Citation Styles

Different citation styles are used in the various schools and departments of TIU. See below for a list of styles by department. Check with your professor to be sure which style to follow for a particular class. 

TIU Style - Chicago/Turbian (most TEDS & TGS classes except counseling)

APA Style (counseling and many undergrad majors including psychology, business, education, and REACH)

AMA Style (Health Sciences)

MLA Style (English)

SBL Style (PhD THS OT & NT)

Citation Styles by Department

Most TEDS programs (including PhD Systematic Theology and Historical Theology) use the version of TIU style called Turabian Humanities style. This style is also known as bibliography or footnote style.

Counseling and Mental Health use APA style for both citation and formatting. 

The PhD Intercultural Studies (ICS), Educational Studies (EDS) and Doctor of Ministry (DMin) programs use the version of TIU style called Turabian Social Sciences style. This style is also known as reference, parenthetical, or author/date format. 

The PhD New Testament and Old Testament programs use the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) style reference for footnotes, bibliography and abbreviations. For all other matters, follow the TIU style - Turabian Humanities style.

College students should follow the following styles for their major. When in doubt, ask your department or professor for further instructions.

Trinity Graduate School follow these formats:

  • Bioethics – TIU style - Turabian Humanities (footnote style)
  • Leadership – APA
  • Teaching / Education – APA