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Writing an Academic Paper at TIU

Citing Quotes from Other Sources

  • When you use someone else's specific words in your paper, those words must be placed either within quotation marks or in block quote form.
    • An example of a shorter quote would be like this:

[Introduced by] Joe Smith writes, [the actual quote] "We must always carefully cite our sources," and he is absolutely correct.

    • If the quote you are using runs to five or more lines in your paper it will be set off as a block quote, without quotation marks but with a blank line above and below, single spaced, and indented 1 inch on the left side.
  • In either case, a reference must be placed after the quote. In every case if you use someone else's words or thoughts, you must give the information for the source, including the specific page number where the quote, argument, observation, etc. may be found.
  • At the end of your paper you must include a list of the sources you used in your paper that gives the full information for all of those sources.
    • For those who follow the social science style, using parenthetical references, this list is called a reference list.
    • For those who follow humanities style, using footnotes, this list is called a bibliography.

Citing Ideas from Other Sources

  • If you use someone else's idea, even if you don't use the person's specific words, you must still cite the source for that idea.
  • If you use a person's idea than can be traced to specific page(s) of a source, then you should include the page number(s).
  • If, though, you make reference to an idea that might be considered the overall idea of a source, you wouldn't need to include page numbers. 

Using Secondary Sources for Quotes

  • While it is expected that students will use the original source for a quotation, sometimes it is necessary to include a quote from a secondary source, that is, one author quotes another, but the original source of the quote is not possible to obtain.
  • You may still do this, but you will cite it like this: Citation X (the original source) quoted in Citation Y (the secondary source you actually used).
  • It is often possible to verify the accuracy of a quote by searching the quote in Google Books if it is available there in snippet view. 

Which Style to Use

  • TEDS / TGS uses four citation styles:
    • Turabian/Chicago social sciences (parenthetical style).
    • Turabian/Chicago humanities (footnote style).
    • Society of Biblical Literature (SBL).
    • APA.
  • If you are not sure which style to follow, see our page here. You should check with your individual professors as well if you are not sure which they prefer.

Citing Humanities Style

  • Turabian/Chicago humanities style uses a footnote placed immediately after the last line of text of your page with the quote on it. For example:

1. Joe Smith, "Proper Citation," Journal of Form and Style 23 (2008): 23.

  • This is called a full citation, which includes the author's name, title of the article, title of the journal, volume number, year and page number.
  • In this case there will simply be a superscripted (raised) footnote number immediately after the quote that directs the reader to the footnote below.

Citing Social Science Style

  • Turabian/Chicago social science style, also called author-date, uses an in-text parenthetical reference. For example:

Joe Smith writes, "We must always carefully cite our sources" (Smith 2008, 23) and he is absolutely correct.

  • Here only the author's last name, year of publication, and page number are included.

Citing APA Style

  • APA style also uses parenthetical, in-text, references. They are formatted slightly different than the social science style.
  • An APA citation would look like this:

(Smith, 2008, p. 23).

  • Note the additional comma and the p. that precedes the page number.

Important Reminder

  • You are claiming as your own very sentence and phrase in your paper that is not in quotation marks or placed in block quotes.
  • To use someone else's words without both quotation marks or block quotes and citation or thoughts without citation is plagiarism.