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Citation & Formatting Help

Commonly-asked APA questions

Citing online journal articles


(1 Cor. 13:1, Revised Standard Version)
Only list the version in your first Bible reference, unless you switch versions. Don't  include the Bible in your References List.  

(Publication Manual of the APA 3.100)

Personal interview, email or conversation 

(T.K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2006)
Personal communications are not included in the References List

(Hacker 37a)

Lecture, speech or sermon 

If there is something people could refer to (recording, powerpoint, notes, etc.) use the following citation. If not, use the personal communication example above.

Hybels, B. (2008, March). "Read, relate, pray." Sermon presented at Willow Creek Community Church, South Barrington, IL. 

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.16 #53 - example of poster session)

Unpublished paper or handout

Simala, J. P. (2009, January). How to do APA citation for REACH. Handout given in the IDS 105R class at Trinity International University, Deerfield, IL.

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.16 #52 - unpublished paper presented at a meeting)

Text cites another author (secondary source)

In the text, name the original author and give a citation for the source where you read it.

Example: According to Plato (as cited in Benson, 2006, p. 33)

List the source you read in your reference list.

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.16 #22)

Unknown author

Begin with the title of the item in the reference list: 

Everday life and cultural theory. (2001). New York: Routledge.

In the text of the paper, include the first word or two of the title: ("Everyday life," 2001, p. 83).

(Hacker, 37a)

Multiple publication locations

If there is more than one publication city for a book, list the first one. If it is not a well-known city or if it could be confused with another place, give an abbreviation for the state: Oxford, MA.

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.03)

Shortening publisher names

Give the name of the publisher in as brief a form as is intelligble. Leave out terms such as Publishers, Co. or Inc. but keep Books and Press.

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.14)

Multiple publication dates

If there is more than one publication year for a book, list the most recent date with the copyright symbol ©.

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.09) 

No date

Use the abbreviation n.d.: 

Highmore, B. (n.d.). Everyday life and cultural theory. New York: Routledge.

(Hacker 37a) 

Article or chapter in an edited book

Meskell, L. (2001). Archaeologies of identity. In I. Hodder (Ed.) Archaeological theory today (pp. 187-213). Cambridge, England: Polity Press.

(Hacker 37b)

Article or chapter reprinted from another source

Piaget, J. (1988). Extracts from Piaget's theory. In K. Richardson (Ed.) Cognitive development to adolescence: A reader (pp. 3-18). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. (Reprinted from Manual of child psychology, pp. 703-732, by P. H. Mussen, Ed., 1970, New York: Wiley)
In the text include both publication years: (Piaget, 1970/1988)
If you don't have the original publication information, you can just use the year of the book. (See above.)
(Publication Manual of the APA 7.02 #26)

Entry in a reference book

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

(Publication Manual of the APA 4.16 #30)

Dictionary definition

Quixotic. (1990). Oxford dictionary (p. 345, 3rd ed., vol. 5). New York: Oxford Press.

In the text of the paper, cite the word: ("Quixotic," 1990, p. 345).

No volume or issue number

Include the month or season with the year:

Scruton, R. (1996, Summer). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 5-13.

Newspaper article

Lohr, S. (2004, December 3). Health care technology is a promise unfinanced. The New York Times, p. C5.

(Hacker 37b)

No page numbers

If the paragraphs are numbered, include the paragraph: (Hall, 2001, para. 5).

If not, include the heading of the section and the paragraph within that section: (Hoppin & Taveras, 2004, Weight-Loss Drugs section, para. 6).

(Hacker 37a)

Online book 

Seton, E. T. (1911). The Arctic prairies: A canoe-journey of 2,000 miles in search of the caribou. New York: C. Scribner's Sons. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from Google Books:

Two or more works in an in-text citation

If you want to cite more than one source in the same place in your paper, include them in the same parentheses and separate them with a semicolon.

Example: Several studies (Balda, 1980, p. 31; Smith, 2003, p. 91; Pepperberg & Funk, 1990, p. 110)

(Hacker 37a)

Trinity College Catalog

Trinity International University. (2008). Trinity College 2008-09 catalog. Deerfield, IL. Retrieved from

In-text citation: (Trinity International University, 2008, p.1)

Table, chart or graph 

Include a note at the bottom of the table.

For a table from a journal article: 

Note. From "Title of Article," by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, 2000, Title of Journal, 50, p. 22.

For a table from a book:

Note. From Title of Book (p. 103), by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, 1999, Place of Publication: Publisher.

Government documents and other reports 

See the Hacker style manual or the APA citation site from Purdue

More help on APA:

Hacker, D. (2004). A pocket style manual (4th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's. 

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2001, 5th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

APA Citation from Purdue  

Citation Machine - creates citations for you. (It is not always accurate, so check to make sure they are correct.)

Questions? Contact Rebecca Miller at or (847)317-4013.